In classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) the mechanisms underlying primary refractory disease and relapse remain unknown. To gain further insight into cHL pathogenesis and genomic changes linked to treatment response, we studied 53 cHL patients by array comparative genomic hybridization, including 23 patients whose primary treatment failed, using DNA from microdissected HRS cells. Copy number alterations found in more than 20% of cases included gains of 2p, 9p, 16p, 17q, 19q, 20q, and losses of 6q, 11q, and 13q. We identified at high resolution recurrent changes defining minimally gained and lost regions harboring genes involved in nuclear factor kappaB signaling, such as REL, IKBKB, CD40, and MAP3K14. Gains of chromosome 16p11.2-13.3 were significantly more frequent in pretreatment and relapse biopsies of unresponsive patients and were associated with shortened disease-specific survival (P = .028). In the therapy-resistant HL cell line KMH2, we found genomic gains and overexpression of the multidrug resistance gene ABCC1 mapping to cytoband 16p13.11. We show that doxorubicin exposure to KMH2 induces ABCC1 expression and that siRNA silencing of ABCC1 sensitizes KMH2 cells to doxorubicin toxicity in vitro, suggesting that overexpression of ABCC1 contributes to the drug resistance phenotype found in KMH2.